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Laura Elizabeth Ingalls Wilder was an American writer known for the Little House on the Prairie When she was two years old, Ingalls moved with her family from Wisconsin in . Wilder's column in the Ruralist, "As a Farm Woman Thinks" , introduced her to a loyal .. Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC). 28 -- and the National Weather Service confirmed a tornado in Cascade in Sheboygan Co. damaged by storms; woman lost dog to stress You see we lost the shelters, and the trees are just completely gone," Severe weather wreaked havoc on the acre farm in Cascade. . Top US Dating Sites. Fast dating sister wife online dating site kompletni.info match day Discover who free polish dating service for vegetarian passions solely as muslim matrimonial website hosting and companionship Become a totally free online dating widowers in madison. Certain accounts may be discouraging at his farm in wisconsin!.
Narration But what at first seemed like a recent homicide, soon became something much stranger. Detective Davies There was some metal that was very intriguing to see Detective Saenz What they did see over there obviously was very unusual. It was surprising to see how well preserved the remains were. Narration Who did these remains belong to? My name is Scott Warnasch, I am a forensic archaeologist. I spent a lot of my early career in archaeology, working on traditional archaeological sites - historic and prehistoric - and I gravitated towards excavating skeletons and cemeteries or burial grounds.
Recovering potentially human remains and identifying the victims, puts my usual work at a much higher level of satisfaction than typical archaeological projects. When we got to work, we were told that we had to get a crew together for the forensic anthropology unit to respond to a potential crime scene in Queens. Apparently, a body was discovered in Elmhurst.
So, we arrived at the scene on Corona Avenue, walked into the site and spoke to the detectives to get a little background on the situation. It was then when I noticed this piece of rusty metal. This suggested that the person died over years ago. As we were uncovering the body and exposing it, we quickly realized that we were dealing with an African American woman.
She seemed to have been buried in some kind of white nightgown and high, thick knee socks. Forensic protocol suggests that you leave the most sensitive parts of the body covered until the last minute. It looked a lot like smallpox. So, the situation went form a potential crime scene to an archaeological discovery to a potential biohazard within like an hour. So, there were two things that we needed to do right away.
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One was to take extra precautions when handling the body and messaging that down the line to the morgue so everybody involved with this understood what we were dealing with. The second was to call the experts. My career and my role at the CDC over the years has been as an infectious disease researcher. So really helping to protect the public health of the country and we actually have an extensive global program as well. We thought well there is no way that we are going to find anything viable.
Well that changed the next morning when we got to the morgue. The preservation of the body was just totally unexpected And so that point I got a little more nervous about the possibility that there might be a contagion risk here.
Smallpox is very unusual, in that it is thought to have killed more people in human history than any other agent that we know of. It was transmitted by aerosol droplets. Peterson New York was an incredibly unhealthy place to be in the 19th Century. There are waves of epidemics that sweep the city against which the population you know has no recourse.
And it attacks those who are living in the least healthy environments. And that was where African Americans of course were allowed to live Death by epidemic was absolutely very common Narration By the middle of the 20th century, there was a huge effort to wipe out small pox once and for all. Karem In there was a World Health Assembly meeting where they talked about mandatory vaccination program to eradicate the disease. So, disease in the United States was eliminated really before Vaccination among children of the United States actually stopped in and then the rest of the world followed suit.
And then in the World Health Organisation declared the world to be smallpox free. Scott Warnasch Although we understood that this woman probably died over years ago, it was important to examine the body to determine whether this was a public health concern. Karem So, in this case the type of specimens we took from skin tissue as well as internal organs were very good samples for a test we call called Polymerase Chain Reaction, or PCR. And in that test, we can actually look specifically for viral DNA sequences based on what we know about smallpox virus.
And it was the most effective way for us to test quickly. What we found was that we could not detect any DNA. And what it really told us that the tissue and any viral DNA was degraded. Probably due to how long it had been since she had died, the moisture in the body, that sort of thing. We felt confident at that point that there was not a contagion present, and that the body really posed no risk relative to smallpox. He wanted to know more about this woman and the world she inhabited more than years ago.
And so, to help him solve the mystery, Scott turned to science. Scott Warnasch I was able to get in touch with a specialist on non-invasive ways of examining a body. Jerry Conlogue For me, the real excitement, and I still feel this after 40 years of doing mummies: My job is to be able to get that information out of the bones so that it can be interpreted by someone like Scott, an anthropologist.
Scott Warnasch This is unbelievable I have never seen anything like this before. Narration The original CT scans Jerry made of the woman have been loaded into a piece of groundbreaking software. Jerry Conlogue Normally I am looking at sections or regions of the body, but this thing lets me see the entire body and I can spin it and roll it and go into it and come out of it.
This is a way that I have never been able to look at a body before. Narration With just the swipe of a screen, it can move between multiple layers of the body— digitally stripping back skin, revealing internal organs, and showing the skeleton beneath.
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Scott Warnasch Yeah, right. We would have X-Rays. Jerry Conlogue Well on the surface, you can see all these small pox lesions on her head, on her neck, on her chest, down into her thigh area and even down into her feet. Scott Warnasch And then on her heel, then on the pad of her foot, on the ball of her foot. Karem Typically with smallpox the rash really initiates in the mouth, in the oral cavity, and so, they become really sore, you have lesions inside your mouth, and then it becomes a full-blown skin lesions in a centrifugal pattern — that means predominantly in the limbs but also on the trunks.
And quite often it was documented that they would have you know exceptional fever, immune response and then a significant drop in blood pressure, which indicates some type of organ failure Prof. Jerry Conlogue I would have only expected lesions on the surface, but if we look inside her skull, this is her brain. And here we have evidence that the lesions are in fact inside. Scott Warnasch It is amazing.
It is like we have a map of how smallpox colonised the human body. Narration The airtight coffin perfectly preserved the woman. He was originally a stove manufacturer in Lower Manhattan. This caused a lot of sorrow for his family and especially his father, and this seemed to be the instigation for the development of the coffin. Jeffrey Kroessler If you died far from home in the early s, that is where you were buried. You are not going to be transported — a corpse - hundreds of miles over weeks or months.
That is out of the realm of possibility. You will be buried where you fell. The coffins were designed to preserve bodies for sanitary storage and long-distance transportation. If someone died far away, he or she could now be sent back home for a proper burial among kin. Scott Warnasch He bought a large farm outside of Newtown, Queens and in one of his barns he set up a little furnace for himself and started his own foundry and started experimenting.
Narration Today, the Fisk Avenue subway stop on the number 7 line stands a short distance from the location of the 19th-century foundry. They have the most extraordinary example of a Fisk metallic burial case There are so many little details that you never get to see from the iron coffins that get excavated from archaeological sites.
This was still a product of many craftsmen and many hours of work. This coffin was invented prior to modern embalming. This was the closest they could get to some way of preserving the dead for transportation and storage. The coffin body itself would be cast in the sand, however certain parts of it were manufactured separately as sort of like medallions and could be pressed into the sand mold to show these different motifs.
So, the face plate, the nameplate and the footplate. They had some variation, they had choices on what they wanted to represent on the coffins. A very important feature of these coffins of the time was that it also had a window for viewing the deceased. This was a time before photography had really caught on as a mode of identification. And it was important for the next of kin to be able to view the body and determine that it was in fact them. This was a time before photography really caught on as a mode of identification.
Narration The Fisk iron coffin was completely airtight. A body sealed inside was kept so well-preserved, it would be recognizable for the purpose of legal identification. Scott Warnasch Once the viewing was over, the lid would be put back on and bolted shut.
And theoretically the whole coffin would be airtight at this point. The foot of the coffin is probably the most important part for the marketer and inventor, Almond Fisk. This is the patent mark that was granted to Fisk on November 14th Scott Warnasch The coffins were a marvellous invention to preserve bodies for transportation. But in this case, oh my god! We have everything here; this woman is so preserved. Narration Most bacteria and organisms responsible for bodily decomposition require oxygen.
But in this case, it was difficult for them to do their job, because the iron coffin was airtight. What I am seeing here is her liver. The liver would be the first organs that will probably start to decompose. So, decomposition was stopped, so that speaks to the efficiency of the coffin.
Scott Warnasch The coffins were very expensive for the time, they came in many sizes and they were generally associated with the rich and the elite. In former first lady Dolley Madison passed away and she was one of the first famous people to be buried in a Fisk coffin.
She was a very well beloved American icon at the time. Her funeral was covered in all the papers and the fact that she was in one of these coffins, shortly after they were patented put Fisk and Raymond into a much larger world. Once we understood she probably died of smallpox that sort of started to make sense why she might be quarantined in one of these coffins, however how she got the coffin would still remain a mystery. Scott Warnasch So, what we have here are a bunch of photos of coffin fragments that were recovered from the scene.
I spent some time trying to put it back together, and it turned out we had about 50 or 60 fragments, but not the whole coffin.
However, the most important part of the coffin was recovered. It was the most important part because it had the patent mark. However, this coffin is significant because the patent mark is misaligned, and the whole logo is rotated degrees, so it was pretty much botched.
Everything about it worked, except that the main marketing part of it was messed up. So maybe it was put to the side and saved for a time of need. Scott Warnasch By understanding this one woman, she provides a window into the time that she lived in, we can learn a lot about the environment, her living conditions, maybe even the types of work she did and from there we can extrapolate into the larger population of the African American community. Clarence Taylor In trying to reconstruct the lives of African Americans in the 19th century and earlier, we face several challenges.
In addition, many white historians did not record the histories of African Americans; they were essentially ignored. Scott Warnasch The first step in an identification process is to create a biological profile, and as an anthropologist, we would use the skeleton to start to narrow down potential candidates of who this might be, based on relative age range, their sex, potentially their ancestry and their stature, and through that, you come up with a thumbnail sketch about who this individual is.
From the skeleton you can learn a lot about the age of the individual based on how well the bones have been formed, and how they have developed.
The long bones have these caps and if the caps at the ends of the bones have fused then we can understand that this person is an adult. Then we also have the spine. Scott Warnasch And we can see a little bit of arthritis in her lower back.
It does suggest she probably used her back on a daily basis. Jerry Conlogue These folks had a physical life. If somebody had a life of extreme manual labour, working in the fields I think that would be showing up on a body, even this age.
The damage to her face is just incredible Prof. This would have been a hand carved comb. It was placed in the back of her hair, it held her hair back and also held a very delicate knit cap that was on the back of her head. And it shows really personal aspects of her life. The little day-to-day motions that this woman had in her life. And it also represents in a large way, the larger community that was involved with preparing her body for the funeral, that they took the time to put her comb in and put the cap on her head and prepare her for a proper burial.
In Burr Oak, Iowathe family helped run a hotel. The youngest of the Ingalls children, Gracewas born there on May 23, The family moved from Burr Oak back to Walnut Grove where Ingalls' father served as the town butcher and justice of the peace. He accepted a railroad job in the spring ofone of which took him to eastern Dakota Territorywhere they joined him that fall. She did not write about the period in — when they lived near Burr Oak, but skipped directly to Dakota Territory, portrayed in By the Shores of Silver Lake De Smet, South Dakotabecame her parents' and sister Mary's home for the remainder of their lives.
After spending the mild winter of — in the surveyor's house, they watched the town of De Smet rise up from the prairie in The following winter, —, one of the most severe on record in the Dakotas, was later described by Ingalls Wilder in her novel, The Long Winter Once the family was settled in De Smet, Ingalls attended school, worked several part-time jobs, and made friends.
Among them was bachelor homesteader Almanzo Wilder. Young teacher[ edit ] On December 10,two months before her 16th birthday, Ingalls accepted her first teaching position. In Little Town on the Prairie she receives her first teaching certificate on December 24,but that was an enhancement for dramatic effect.
Between andshe taught three terms of school, worked for the local dressmaker, and attended high school, although she did not graduate. Laura and Almanzo Wilder, circa Ingalls' teaching career and studies ended when the 18 year old Laura Ingalls married 28 year old Almanzo Wilder on August 25, From the beginning of their relationship, the pair had nicknames for each other: Complications from a life-threatening bout of diphtheria left Almanzo partially paralyzed.
While he eventually regained nearly full use of his legs, he needed a cane to walk for the remainder of his life. This setback, among many others, began a series of unfortunate events that included the death of their newborn son; the destruction of their barn along with its hay and grain by a mysterious fire;  the total loss of their home from a fire accidentally set by Rose;  and several years of severe drought that left them in debt, physically ill, and unable to earn a living from their acres Aroundthey left De Smet and spent about a year resting at the home of Almanzo's parents on their Spring Valley, Minnesotafarm before moving briefly to Westville, Floridain search of a climate to improve Almanzo's health.
They found, however, that the dry plains they were used to were very different from the humidity they encountered in Westville. The weather, along with feeling out of place among the locals, encouraged their return to De Smet inwhere they purchased a small home.
They named the place Rocky Ridge Farm  and moved into a ramshackle log cabin. At first, they earned income only from wagon loads of fire wood they would sell in town for 50 cents.
Financial security came slowly. Apple trees they planted did not bear fruit for seven years. Almanzo's parents visited around that time and gave them the deed to the house they had been renting in Mansfield, which was the economic boost Wilder's family needed. They then added to the property outside town, and eventually accrued nearly acres Aroundthey sold the house in town, moved back to the farm, and completed the farmhouse with the proceeds.
What began as about 40 acres They diversified Rocky Ridge Farm with poultry, a dairy farm, and a large apple orchard. Wilder became active in various clubs and was an advocate for several regional farm associations. She was recognized as an authority in poultry farming and rural living, which led to invitations to speak to groups around the region.
She also took a paid position with the local Farm Loan Associationdispensing small loans to local farmers. Wilder's column in the Ruralist, "As a Farm Woman Thinks", introduced her to a loyal audience of rural Ozarkianswho enjoyed her regular columns.
Her topics ranged from home and family, including her trip to San Francisco, Californiato visit Rose Lane and the Pan-Pacific exhibition, to World War I and other world events, and to the fascinating world travels of Lane as well as her own thoughts on the increasing options offered to women during this era. While the couple was never wealthy until the "Little House" books began to achieve popularity, the farming operation and Wilder's income from writing and the Farm Loan Association provided them with a stable living.
Miller, "[a]fter more than a decade of writing for farm papers, Wilder had become a disciplined writer, able to produce thoughtful, readable prose for a general audience. However, the "project never proceeded very far. She remodeled and took it over. They still owned the acre 81 hectare farm, but they had invested most of their savings with Lane's broker.
InWilder requested Lane's opinion about an autobiographical manuscript she had written about her pioneering childhood. The Great Depressioncoupled with the deaths of Wilder's mother in and her older sister inseem to have prompted her to preserve her memories in a life story called Pioneer Girl. She also hoped that her writing would generate some additional income. On the advice of Lane's publisher, she greatly expanded the story. After its success, she continued writing.
The close and often rocky collaboration between her and Lane continued, in person until when Lane permanently left Rocky Ridge Farm, and afterward by correspondence. The collaboration worked both ways: Still others contend that she took each of Wilder's unpolished rough drafts in hand and completely, but silently, transformed them into the series of books known today.
Miller, using this record, describes varying levels of involvement by Lane.