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Although he stood as an independent, he endorsed the full Liberal platform. He also advocated extending the franchise to women, provided that such a radical political change would be introduced only through constitutionally recognized means Wood Three years later he published his Anti-Suffragist Anxieties With the outbreak of World War I, Russell became involved in anti-war activities and in he was fined pounds for authoring an anti-war pamphlet.
Because of his conviction, he was dismissed from his post at Trinity College, Cambridge Hardy Two years later, he was convicted a second time, this time for suggesting that American troops might be used to intimidate strikers in Britain Clark— The result was five months in Brixton Prison as prisoner No.
In and Russell ran twice more for Parliament, again unsuccessfully, and together with his second wife, Dora, he founded an experimental school that they operated during the late s and early s Russell and Park The appointment was revoked following a series of protests and a judicial decision which found him morally unfit to teach at the College Dewey and KallenIrvineWeidlich A year later, together with Albert Einstein, he released the Russell-Einstein Manifesto calling for the curtailment of nuclear weapons.
In he became a prime organizer of the first Pugwash Conference, which brought together a large number of scientists concerned about the nuclear issue. He became the founding president of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in and Honorary President of the Committee of in InRussell was once again imprisoned, this time for a week in connection with anti-nuclear protests. Beginning inhe began work on a variety of additional issues, including lobbying on behalf of political prisoners under the auspices of the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation.
Upon being awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature inRussell used his acceptance speech to emphasize themes relating to his social activism. Over the years, Russell has served as the subject of numerous creative works, including T.
An Epic Search for Truth The Spirit of Solitude and Bertrand Russell: For a detailed bibliography of the secondary literature surrounding Russell up to the close of the twentieth century, see Andrew Irvine, Bertrand Russell: For a list of new and forthcoming books relating to Russell, see the Forthcoming Books page at the Bertrand Russell Archives.
Russell discovered the paradox that bears his name inwhile working on his Principles of Mathematics The paradox arises in connection with the set of all sets that are not members of themselves. Such a set, if it exists, will be a member of itself if and only if it is not a member of itself. In his draft of the Principles of Mathematics, Russell summarizes the problem as follows: The axiom that all referents with respect to a given relation form a class seems, however, to require some limitation, and that for the following reason.
We saw that some predicates can be predicated of themselves. Consider now those … of which this is not the case. For this predicate will either be predicable or not predicable of itself. If it is predicable of itself, it is one of those referents by relation to which it was defined, and therefore, in virtue of their definition, it is not predicable of itself.
Conversely, if it is not predicable of itself, then again it is one of the said referents, of all of which by hypothesis it is predicable, and therefore again it is predicable of itself. This is a contradiction. Both versions of the theory came under attack: For some, it was important that any proposed solution be comprehensive enough to resolve all known paradoxes at once. For others, it was important that any proposed solution not disallow those parts of classical mathematics that remained consistent, even though they appeared to violate the vicious circle principle.
For discussion of related paradoxes, see Chapter 2 of the Introduction to Whitehead and Russellas well as the entry on paradoxes and contemporary logic in this encyclopedia. Russell himself had recognized several of these same concerns as early asnoting that it was unlikely that any single solution would resolve all of the known paradoxes.
Even so, critics claimed that the axiom was simply too ad hoc to be justified philosophically. For additional discussion see LinskyLinsky and Wahl The first was that all mathematical truths can be translated into logical truths or, in other words, that the vocabulary of mathematics constitutes a proper subset of the vocabulary of logic. The second was that all mathematical proofs can be recast as logical proofs or, in other words, that the theorems of mathematics constitute a proper subset of the theorems of logic.
Thus the number 1 is to be identified with the class of all unit classes, the number 2 with the class of all two-membered classes, and so on. In Principia Mathematica, Whitehead and Russell were able to provide many detailed derivations of major theorems in set theory, finite and transfinite arithmetic, and elementary measure theory. They were also able to develop a sophisticated theory of logical relations and a unique method of founding the real numbers.
Even so, the issue of whether set theory itself can be said to have been successfully reduced to logic remained controversial.
A fourth volume on geometry was planned but never completed. As one of the founders of analytic philosophy, Russell made significant contributions to a wide variety of areas, including metaphysicsepistemology, ethics and political theory. His advances in logic and metaphysics also had significant influence on Rudolf Carnap and the Vienna Circle. Famously, he vacillated on whether negative facts are also required.
The reason Russell believes many ordinarily accepted statements are open to doubt is that they appear to refer to entities that may be known only through inference. Motivating this question was the traditional problem of the external world. If our knowledge of the external world comes through inferences to the best explanation, and if such inferences are always fallible, what guarantee do we have that our beliefs are reliable?
Together these atoms and their properties form the atomic facts which, in turn, combine to form logically complex objects. What we normally take to be inferred entities for example, enduring physical objects are then understood as logical constructions formed from the immediately given entities of sensation, viz.
For example, on this view, an ordinary physical object that normally might be thought to be known only through inference may be defined instead as a certain series of appearances, connected with each other by continuity and by certain causal laws. To say that a certain aspect is an aspect of a certain thing will merely mean that it is one of those which, taken serially, are the thing. There are things that we know without asking the opinion of men of science. If you are too hot or too cold, you can be perfectly aware of this fact without asking the physicist what heat and cold consist of.
Similarly, numbers may be reduced to collections of classes; points and instants may be reduced to ordered classes of volumes and events; and classes themselves may be reduced to propositional functions. Anything that resists construction in this sense may be said to be an ontological atom. Such objects are atomic, both in the sense that they fail to be composed of individual, substantial parts, and in the sense that they exist independently of one another.
Their corresponding propositions are also atomic, both in the sense that they contain no other propositions as parts, and in the sense that the members of any pair of true atomic propositions will be logically independent of one another. Russell believes that formal logic, if carefully developed, will mirror precisely, not only the various relations between all such propositions, but their various internal structures as well.
It is in this context that Russell also introduces his famous distinction between two kinds of knowledge of truths: To be justified, every indirect knowledge claim must be capable of being derived from more fundamental, direct or intuitive knowledge claims.
The kinds of truths that are capable of being known directly include both truths about immediate facts of sensation and truths of logic. Eventually, Russell supplemented this distinction between direct and indirect knowledge of truths with his equally famous distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description. Later, he clarifies this point by adding that acquaintance involves, not knowledge of truths, but knowledge of things a, Thus, while intuitive knowledge and derivative knowledge both involve knowledge of propositions or truthsknowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description both involve knowledge of things or objects.
This distinction is slightly complicated by the fact that, even though knowledge by description is in part based upon knowledge of truths, it is still knowledge of things, and not of truths.
I am grateful to Russell Wahl for reminding me of this point. Since it is things with which we have direct acquaintance that are the least questionable members of our ontology, it is these objects upon which Russell ultimately bases his epistemology. As Russell puts it, even in logic and mathematics We tend to believe the premises because we can see that their consequences are true, instead of believing the consequences because we know the premises to be true. But the inferring of premises from consequences is the essence of induction; thus the method in investigating the principles of mathematics is really an inductive method, and is substantially the same as the method of discovering general laws in any other science.
In fact, Russell often claims that he has more confidence in his methodology than in any particular philosophical conclusion. This is so, even though Russell tells us that his one, true revolution in philosophy came as a result of his break from idealism. Russell saw that the idealist doctrine of internal relations led to a series of contradictions regarding asymmetrical and other relations necessary for mathematics.
Moore led the way, but I followed closely in his footsteps. Although we were in agreement, I think that we differed as to what most interested us in our new philosophy. I think that Moore was most concerned with the rejection of idealism, while I was most interested in the rejection of monism.
In contrast to this doctrine, Russell proposed his own new doctrine of external relations: The doctrine of internal relations held that every relation between two terms expresses, primarily, intrinsic properties of the two terms and, in ultimate analysis, a property of the whole which the two compose. With some relations this view is plausible. Take, for example, love or hate. If A loves B, this relation exemplifies itself and may be said to consist in certain states of mind of A. Even an atheist must admit that a man can love God.
It follows that love of God is a state of the man who feels it, and not properly a relational fact. But the relations that interested me were of a more abstract sort. Suppose that A and B are events, and A is earlier than B. I do not think that this implies anything in A in virtue of which, independently of B, it must have a character which we inaccurately express by mentioning B. Leibniz gives an extreme example.